Darwin, therefore, argued that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have universal cross-cultural counterparts. Darwin also detailed the virtues of experiencing emotions and the parallel experiences that occur in animals. This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion. Contemporary More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.
Here is a good overview on the topic of emotion Although the video above gives a history of the theories of emotion, for the IB examination it is not required that students know all of those theories.
The goal is simply to know how physiology and emotion interact. As the video explains, psychologists today argue that emotions are often a combination of bottom-up and top-down processing.
A car crashes and I jump. Not only do I jump, but I experience arousal of the sympathetic nervous system. In other cases, an emotion is the result of top-down processing — that is, I interpret the situation with a combination of the frontal lobe thinking about the situation and predicting what may happen and the hippocampus memory of past similar situations or recognition — for example, I recognize that it is actually a dog that I know and that there is no reason to be afraid.
According to the theory, when an emotion is felt, a physiological arousal occurs and the person uses the immediate environment to search for emotional cues to label the physiological arousal. In this experiment there were three hypotheses: If a person experiences a state of physiological arousal for which they have an appropriate explanation, there will be no need to use external situational cues to label the arousal as an emotion.
Given no state of physiological arousal, despite situational cues, an individual will experience no emotion. They were told that they were going to be injected with a new vitamin, Suproxin; however, in actuality they were injected with adrenaline.
For this study there were three independent variables: Physiological arousal — they were either injected with adrenaline or with a placebo saline solution Explanation of arousal — they were either informed told the correct symptoms or misinformed told the wrong symptoms or ignorant not told anything about symptoms.
Altogether there were four conditions which were exposed to either the euphoric or the angry confederate: In the euphoric situation, adrenaline ignorant and misinformed participants reported higher levels of happiness than those that were informed. However, there was no difference between those two groups and the placebo.
So, in the euphoria condition, the third hypothesis was not supported. In the angry condition, adrenaline ignorant participants behaved significantly more angrily than either the informed or the placebo participants.
This appears to support all three hypotheses. Evaluation This study is very famous in psychology, but it is fraught with problems. On the one hand, it appears to provide evidence for the Two Factor Theory.
The use of a placebo helped to determined whether it was in fact the adrenaline or simply the situation. As you can see from the euphoric situation, this cannot be adequately determined.
But there are several limitations of this study: Inconsistent method of collecting data. No self-reports from the angry condition. The act of injecting someone with a needle may lead to a natural increase in adrenaline which is not accounted for.We know both biological and cognitive factors play a role in emotion but it is difficult to determine the interaction due to the complexity of defining emotion.
Early theories of emotion argue that cognitive and biological factors interact to a limited extent.
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biological and cognitive factors interacting in emotion. define emotion. Biology. Scachter and Singer Canon Bard -amygdala = important role in emotional memories. To a large extent, cognitive and biological factors do affect the interaction in emotion based off the two studies and information provided.
Emotions have two important parts, physiological component of emotions (the way our body reacts to an emotion) and subjective feelings of emotion (the way we experience an emotion). As such, this essay response will aim to consider the argument or concept of how both cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion and influence how humans experience emotion.
A conclusion will then be made regarding the extent in which these factors influence emotion. To What Extent Emotion Cognitive and Biological Factors Interact to Create Emotion the extent as to which biological and cognitive factors interact to produce it. In some older theories where emotion is defined as purely a physiological change are James-Lange and Cannon-Bard.
LeDoux – Fear in rats experiment (Biological factors in emotion) [A] Investigate the role of the amygdala. [P] Rats were conditioned to feel fear when they hear the sound of a bell.