Now first published, with a Memoir of the Author, and other Additions.
IT has often been considered as a singular phenomenon in the literary history of Italy, that a people remarkable for lively and inventive genius should have accomplished so little in the department of Historical Romance. Nor has the surprise, gen- erally felt upon this subject, been diminished by a more atten- tive examination of the history and literature of this nation; the one abounding with romantic incident and striking developments of wild passion and strongly marked character; the other, rich in accurate and powerful descriptions of real events, and still richer in fascinating pictures of the most enchanting creations of the imagination.
Nature too would seem to have perform- ed her part, in the character which she has imprinted upon the scenery of the country, and in the materials of romantic em- bellishment, which she has interwoven, which a lavish hand, in every line of its varied features.
Plains, mountains, and quiet valleys ; wild torrents, and broad, majestic streams ; gigantic fragments, which carry the mind beyond the days of authentic history; and noble ruins, which attest the reality of that histo- ry which the long lapse of agcs has made romance for us; an air, whose breath calls forth every latent seed of poetry, and gives a charm even to the monotony of daily life; these are voL.
And still deeper are the principles which she has implanted in the hearts of its in- habitants. How then has it come to pass, that they have ac- complished so little, where every thing would seem to promise the highest success The character, which the literature of every nation assumes, from the first moment of its formation, depends upon a va- riety of local and incidental causes.
Its strongest traits, those which it preserves through every period of its revolutions, will necessarily be derived from the peculiarities of national character; and the same causes, which contribute to the forma- tion of the one, will act constantly and effectually upon the other.
It is thus that climate and natural scenery acquire their influence, giving a distinctive tone to its poetry, and forming as it were the shade and coloring of its pictures. It is thus, also, that the political situation of every country, or, more prop- erly speaking, its political character, takes a part in that of its literature, and is manifested with more or less fulness in all its literary productions.
Language too comes in for its share in this general formation, and while it borrows many of its pecu- liarities from those of the minds that employ it, communicates to them, in turn, a portion of its own original spirit ; like the stream, which, in part, derives its beauty or its grandeur from that of the landscape through which it flows, and at the same time shares with that landscape its own distinctive features, softening its beauty, or adding new majesty to its grandeur.
The influence of these causes may be considered as gen- eral, and can easily be traced in the early history of every liter- ature. Others, scarcely less important, were peculiar to the revival of letters in Italy.
But none have so immediate a bear- ing upon our subject, as the direction which the three great men, by whom this revival was accomplished, gave to the studies of their contemporaries, and through them to those of the following century.
First among them was Dante, who came at once to guide and be guided by the passions which were in action around him.
In him the romantic gallantry of the Troubadours was refined into the pure and devoted love that led to the deifica- tion of his Beatrice. The subtile metaphysics of the schoolmen were elevated to the profound and sublime, though often ob- scure and extravagant, theology of the Paradiso; while the Dante, in short, or rather the form which his genius assumed, was in a great measure the consequence of the character of his age, and of the general causes to which we have already alluded.
But the inspiration, which he had derived from these, he in turn communicated to others. The Divina Commedia became the model of all those, who aimed at the higher flights of poetry; and, as is ever the case, the streams which were thus drawn forth, and taught to flow, by art, ran slow and silently hy the side of those which had sprung from deep natural sources.
Similar in kind, though not in degree, was the influence of Petrarca. It was not by verse that Boccaccio formed his school. But a prose whose frill, harmonious flow approached the varied melody of Latin eloquence ; a language which seemed to adapt itself to every subject, while, in truth, it raised the lowest sub- jects to its own standard, veiling the coarseness of vulgar de- tails, and giving an irresistible attraction to the most harrowing descriptions, by the charm of words and idioms, grave or gay, thrillingly powerful, or gracefully expressive, and every- where so appropriate, that five centuries of constant study have produced nothing more perfect; this was the art by which the father of Italian prose won so large a train of disciples into the path which he had opened.
The school of Boccaccio, though not so large as that of Petrarca, was larger and more durable than that of Dante.
Such was the direction first given to Italian literature. The three great men, by whomn this impulse was communicated, laid at the same time the foundation of another school, whose Historical Romance in Italy. We mean the classic school. The veneration, which they felt and invariably manifested for the ancient classics, fell little short of religious devotion.In astrology, we consider September to be a turning point month as we are in the 6th zodiac sign or half way through the cycle of 12 zodiacs.
September also brings an Equinox, that heralds that start of a new season, and the start of a new cycle of energy for everyone. This is the difference between a free society and a totalitarian utopian society. Under liberal democracy, there is more freedom for good and evil.
Under communism, only the ‘good’ was permitted: equality, sharing, and unity. Aristotle believed that although communal arrangements may seem beneficial to society, and that although private property is often blamed for social strife, such evils in fact come from human nature.
In Politics, Aristotle offers one of the earliest accounts of the origin of money. . In every such case of resolution and composition, the reasoning for one member of the equation, holds for the other; yet in such cases we are not dealing with the fact itselg but with its equivalents: the resultant is the equivalent of the components, and con- versely.
As long as the society that Plato is advocating for are words in a book, and not actual implementation, Plato’s “Republic” is still “no-place.” However, once the policies of Plato are implemented in the known world, perhaps it is no longer a utopia and another term is deserving.
Utopia Plato’s Republic: A Utopia For The Individual Alfred Geier says it’s not about the state of the state.. The Republic is Plato’s most famous dialogue, contains many of his best-known arguments and is one of the great classics of world literature. It is also the victim of a serious and widespread misconception, in that it is held to present a political utopia, a polis [city state.