This was originally not just a translation used for philosophy, but was also commonly a translation for logos in the sense of an account of money. The meaning of the word "reason" in senses such as "human reason" also overlaps to a large extent with " rationality " and the adjective of "reason" in philosophical contexts is normally " rational ", rather than "reasoned" or "reasonable". Philosophy can be described as a way of life based upon reason, and in the other direction reason has been one of the major subjects of philosophical discussion since ancient times. Reason is often said to be reflexiveor "self-correcting", and the critique of reason has been a persistent theme in philosophy.
Discursive Practices Essay Discursive Practices Essay Briefly defined, discursive practices in education are the uses of language in an educational context e.
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Language includes spoken, signed, and written forms of communication. Context includes the aspects of the situation in which such communication takes place that affect the meaning of the communication either in its production or its reception. Part of the context of language use is the relevant language that comes before and after the particular discursive practice in question.
Thus, discursive practices generally encompass language chunks larger than one sentence.
Discursive practices in education are increasingly of interest to a number of academic disciplines. This entry discusses why educational discursive practices are important, how they can be researched, and finally how discursive practices might become part of the school curriculum.
Why Discursive Practices Are Important Discursive practices are of interest to educational researchers because the social world is largely constructed through language. This includes the organization of social actions, practices, and structures of education.
In order for groups to act in concert, communication between the members generally must take place. Human beings communicate with each other largely through language use. However, not only is language used to coordinate action, it is also the means by which groups develop a shared understanding of the world, that is, their ideology.
Most discursive scholars contend that language always carries with it political or ideological implications. That is, there is no such thing as ideologically or politically neutral language. So when discursive practices are analyzed, both the actions directly proposed and the ideologies supported explicitly and implicitly by language use are investigated.
Although preexiting ideologies constrain what sorts of discursive practices are possible, they do not determine which discursive practices might emerge, and it is primarily through new discursive practices that preexisting ideologies may be transformed.
Given the integrality of discourse in developing, maintaining, or transforming shared ideologies, the discursive practices of schools are particularly important—especially the importance of understanding not only the ways that they induce particular ideologies, but determining what sort of ideologies are promoted by the discursive practices of schools.
Research Approaches Educational discursive practices can be investigated through either discourse analysis or critical discourse analysis CDA.
CDA is of especial interest in that it specifically incorporates an examination of both ideology and power. CDA is both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary: However, no matter which disciplinary method or combination of methods is used in CDA, establishing the relevant context is problematic.
The problem is that it is impossible to describe the entire context; it would in fact be like describing reality.
Thus, the researcher must pick out the relevant aspects of the context. Thus, the researcher must rely upon generalizations produced by quantitative studies generalizations that will not fit a portion of discourse participantsrely upon explanations by the producers and consumers of the discourse, rely upon the ensuing social actions including discourseor rely upon all three to determine which aspects of the context are relevant.
For critical discourse analysts, power relations inherent in the context are always relevant. Rebecca Rogers in An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in Education discusses the problem of determining which aspects of context are relevant.
Curriculum Issues Aside from researching the discursive practices of education, many have proposed that CDA ought to be an integral part of the school language curriculum.
Authors such as Tuen van Dijk maintain that public schools should focus on teaching students the analytic skills necessary to understand the implicit as well as explicit content of texts.
His proposed objectives for secondary students also provide a rudimentary model for the aspects of language use that ought to be considered when analyzing discourse.
By the final grades of secondary school, he proposes, students should have been educated such that they are aware of and capable of analyzing the following aspects of discourse: The relationship between a particular discourse and its historical and contemporary social context Discourse incorporating speech acts, social acts, and will—all of which occur strategically in interactions Different discourse types that are linked to and regulated by particular social contexts, situations, or circumstances and in which participants have different statuses and partake of different roles and functions The intentions, wishes, preferences, interests, and goals of the speakers that appear in their discourse The several levels of discourse: The eighties image of girls and women in the educational reform literature.Best write my essay service that guarantees timely delivery.
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Discursive Practices Essay Briefly defined, discursive practices in education are the uses of language in an educational context (e.g., the typical pattern of teacher question, student answer, teacher feedback) or the use of language in context relating to education (e.g., state legislators’ talk when making new educational laws).
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