One and one-half acres of rainforest are lost every second with tragic consequences for both developing and industrial countries. Rainforests are being destroyed because the value of rainforest land is perceived as only the value of its timber by short-sighted governments, multi-national logging companies, and land owners. Experts estimates that we are losing plant, animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation.
Barazzuolli 23, Firenze, Italy. Bonaventura 13, Firenze, Italy. Introduction Good forest roads are crucial for effective forest management, regardless of its main objectives. Forest maintenance, wood harvesting, game control, recreational activities - all require the accessibility provided by a suitable road network.
However, road building is often regarded with suspicion because of its high potential impact. The new priority given to environmental protection involves a re-thinking of road building in both its general lines and its technical details. Providing access to the forest can no longer be considered one of the stages of wood production.
Roads must be designed to satisfy multiple needs, and their construction must involve suitable practices to prevent environmental degradation.
Environmentally sound road building requires precise knowledge of potential impacts in any given set of conditions. Over the years, the subject has attracted a number of experts, who have studied the impacts of road building and have described a whole range of preventive and remedial measures.
Since individual studies treat specific situations, a general perspective can only be obtained through a comprehensive review. This paper tries to set the framework for organizing detailed information. In the process, it defines the "pillars" of environmentally sound road building and points out the most urgent research needs.
This was meant to include all activities that constitute, precede and follow any harvesting plan, regardless of its characteristics. Therefore, clear cuts, thinnings, regeneration cuts are all included, as well as their accessory activities, like preparation, restoration and road building.
The work continued for more than a year. Fourteen countries participate in this concerted action, which therefore, has provided a broad forum for gathering, disseminating and discussing relevant information.
The bibliography was completed in Marchand now includes references. All 14 countries participating in the concerted action contributed data and suggestions to the compiler.
However, the bulk of the data comes from direct consultation of Forestry Abstracts and Forestry Product Abstract, which in turn review over serial publications.
The compilation covers a year span, and takes into consideration that titles published before are either obsolete or have been included in earlier compilations. An exception was made for some specific works, in view of their lasting validity or of their importance as milestones in this field.
All selected entries contain ten descriptive fields concerning the approach of the study, its type, the medium concerned, the type and the consequence of the damage studied, the agent of the damage, the operation during which the damage happens, the region where the study is carried out, the type of stand and terrain.
For each field, a limited number of codes were used in a rather rigid framework, which makes consultation easier. Indeed, the objective of the work was to provide a large collection of references, which can be subdivided into smaller universes for finalized consultation: In this perspective, the use of free-ranging keywords would have simply made consultation more complicated, without adding much to its informative value.
This paper demonstrates one possible application of this bibliography. Two researchers, one from CNR and the other from the University of Florence, have used the database to find all those titles that reported the code "road building" in the fields "agent of damage" or "operation considered".
One hundred seventy-five references were found and extracted into a smaller database for further analysis. This has provided relevant information on the geographic distribution of the studies, the prevailing study type, and the kind of damage more often involved.
Finally, a printout of the extracted titles was produced and the original works, or their abstracts, were found in the respective libraries of the two institutes. Direct consultation of the original documents allowed drawing a finer review of the selected bibliography.Paths to social change: conventional politics, violence and nonviolence, a chapter by Brian Martin in the UNESCO-EOLSS volume Nonviolent Alternatives for .
Employee record retention and destruction issues To keep or not to keep, that is the question. by Larry Morgan, MA, SPHR, SHRM-SCP, GPHR | June/July Essay about Destruction of Rain Forest; Essay about Destruction of Rain Forest.
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Why do leaves change color in the fall essay. Why do leaves change color in the fall essay. Free Research Paper on Deforestation.
Deforestation is the removal of trees and other plants from forest areas more quickly than they can be replanted or regenerated naturally. It is a problem because of the parts that the trees have to play in stabilising the climate, atmospheric composition and soil structure.