Agriculture Agriculture in the delta has traditionally benefited from the water and silt deposited by the flood remember that the silt comes from eroding basalt lava in the Ethiopian highlands. This silt made the Nile delta one of the richest agricultural areas in the world and the basis of one of the most ancient human civilizations. Irrigation and more intensive farming, combined with inadequate drainage, has created swamps. The rise in water tables has led to accumulation of harmful salts, fertilizers, and pesticides in the upper layers of the soil.
Geography, climate and population Geography Ethiopia, with a total area of 1. The country is landlocked, sharing frontiers with Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti to the east, Somalia to the east and southeast, Kenya to the south, and South Sudan and Sudan to the west. It is estimated that 16 million ha is cultivated and 20 million ha are permanent pastures Table 1.
Climate Ethiopia has a tropical monsoon climate with wide topographic-induced variation. Three climatic zones can be distinguished: Mean annual potential evapotranspiration varies between 1 mm in arid and semi-arid areas and 1 mm in dry sub-humid areas.
Average annual rainfall for the country is mm due to its proximity to the equator and high altitude, varying from about 2 mm in some pocket areas in southwest Ethiopia to less than mm in the Afar Lowlands in the northeast. Rainfall in Ethiopia is highly erratic, resulting in a very high risk of intra-seasonal dry spells and annual droughts, of which the, and are the major ones in the last decades.
Nile river water problem drought in is even considered to be the worst drought for over 30 years. Considering the water balance and the length of the growing period, Ethiopia can be divided into three major agroclimatic zones: The peak rainfall months are April and September.
Population The total population of the country is estimated at 99 millionof which 81 percent is rural Table 1. The annual population growth rate is 2. The urban population is growing rapidly as a result of both population increase and high rural-urban migration.
Inthe Human Development Index ranks Ethiopia among countries and the Gender Inequality Index ranks it among countries for which data are available. Life expectancy in Ethiopia is 64 years and the under-five mortality is 62 per births inboth progressing from 51 years and over per at the end of the s.
Around 80 percent of the children in are enrolled in primary education, thus almost doubling the rate, and with a reduced gap between boys 82 percent and girls 78 percent compared to that period 50 percent of boys against 39 percent of girls.
Adult literacy is 39 percent for the period UNDP,with a gap between female literacy 29 percent and male literacy 49 percent. Poverty is still widely spread as it concerns almost a third of the population 30 percent and is more concentrated in rural areas.
In93 percent of the urban and 49 percent of the rural population were using improved drinking water sources, that is 57 percent of the total population This represents a major improvement since when only 33 percent of the population had access to an improved drinking water source JMP, Sanitation coverage also increased from 10 percent in to 28 percent in and almost no difference in coverage between rural and urban areas.
Economy, agriculture and food security The Ethiopian economy is mostly based on agriculture, with industry and services slightly increasing recently. Agriculture accounts for 42 percent of GDP in and about 85 percent of exports earnings in It also employs 83 percent of the active population MoA, Agriculture is primarily rainfed and thus highly dependent on rainfall.
Smallholders dominate the sector and the land holding is increasingly fragmented. Inthere were It however benefits from a liberalized economy since the s.
The Ethiopian livestock is also significant with over 50 million cattle, 50 million poultry, 20 million sheep and 20 million goats in CSA, The main agricultural exports are coffee, oil seeds, cereals, cotton, sugarcane, khat, spices, natural gum, incense and cut flowers among others.
Coffee is the largest export commodity responsible for a third of the agricultural exports earnings. Ethiopia is the largest African coffee producer and the country where coffee is believed to have been discovered in the eponym Kaffa region.
Wheat, palm oil and raw sugar are the main agricultural imports of the country. The following five main agricultural production systems can be distinguished in the country: The prevalence of undernourishment is still significant with 35 percent inbut improved a lot falling from 55 percent in FAO, About 10 percent of the households are considered food insecure and partly rely on food aid even without dry spell ODI, Water resources Ethiopia is endowed with a substantial amount of water resources but very high hydrological variability.
The surface water resource potential is impressive, but little developed. The country possesses twelve major river basins, which form four major drainage systems Table 2:Buy The Nile River Basin: Water, Agriculture, Governance and Livelihoods (Earthscan Series on Major River Basins of the World) on torosgazete.com FREE SHIPPING on .
read and discuss an article on the problems and promises that the Nile River posed to ancient Egypt. Finally, in small Explain that the Nile brought Egypt water and rich soil for farming and that its civilization B. Reading and Discussion—Promise and Problems of the Nile 1.
Explain that the problems had to do with the Nile. Distribute. The Vanishing Nile: A Great River Faces a Multitude of Threats The Nile River is under assault on two fronts – a massive dam under construction upstream in Ethiopia and rising sea levels leading to saltwater intrusion downstream.
Under river flow. Throughout the course of a river, the total volume of water transported downstream will often be a combination of the visible free water flow together with a substantial contribution flowing through rocks and sediments that underlie the river and its floodplain called the hyporheic torosgazete.com many rivers in large valleys, this unseen .
Blue Nile: Ethiopia's River of Magic and Mystery (Adventure Press) [Virginia Morell] on torosgazete.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Offers an account of the author's experiences on a National Geographic expedition on the Blue Nile River through Ethiopia.
NILE RIVER WATER RIGHT PROBLEM Introduction: Water is our source of life. We can't imagine live without water, but this source of life may become the source of death. Many experts think that all wars in the future will be over water.
One of this expected water war is a war for Nile River water.