Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much.
Table of Contents Context Henry James —whose mastery of the psychological novel markedly influenced twentieth-century literature, was born in New York City. His father, Henry James, Sr. After a year at Harvard Law School, he began writing short stories and book reviews.
He continued to travel widely from a base in England, where he chose to settle.
He became a British subject ina year before his death at the age of seventy-three. By the time James died, he had written more than a hundred short stories and novellas, as well as literary and dramatic criticism, plays, travel essays, book reviews, and twenty novels, including The Portrait of a LadyThe BostoniansThe Wings of the DoveThe Ambassadorsand The Golden Bowl Although James had many friends and acquaintances, he maintained a certain reserve toward most people.
He never married, and the absence of any known romantic attachments has led some critics to speculate that he was a repressed or closeted homosexual. James wrote The Turn of the Screw inat a low point in his life.
In he had suffered a tremendous personal and professional blow when his play Guy Domville was booed off the London stage. Deeply wounded, James retreated from London and took refuge in Sussex, eventually taking a long-term lease on a rambling mansion called Lamb House. Shortly thereafter, he began writing The Turn of the Screw, one of several works from this period that revolve around large, rambling houses.
The field remained popular even after the unmasking of the Fox sisters, whose claims of being able to communicate with the spirit world had started the craze for spiritualism in the s. James had written ghost stories before The Turn of the Screw.
It was a popular form, especially in England, where, as the prologue to The Turn of the Screw suggests, gathering for the purpose of telling ghost stories was something of a Christmastide tradition. The spin James put on the story was to make everything—the presence of the ghosts, their moral depravity, their designs on the children—purely a function of hearsay.
As careful readers have noted, the ghosts are visible only to one person in the tale—the governess who serves as both narrator and protagonist. Not until after World War I did anyone question the reliability of the governess as a narrator. With the publication of a essay by the influential critic Edmund Wilson, a revised view of the story began to gain currency.
Throughout the course of his life, Wilson continued to revise and rethink his interpretation of The Turn of the Screw, but all criticism since has had to confront the central ambiguity in the narrative.
Is the governess a hopeless neurotic who hallucinates the figures of Peter Quint and Miss Jessel, or is she a plucky young woman battling to save her charges from damnation? Adherents of both views abound, though the former take on the story is rarer.
Other critics maintain that the beauty and terror of the tale reside in its utter ambiguity, arguing that both interpretations are possible and indeed necessary to make The Turn of the Screw the tour de force that it is.Washington Square is a short novel by Henry torosgazete.comally published in as a serial in Cornhill Magazine and Harper's New Monthly Magazine, it is a structurally simple tragicomedy that recounts the conflict between a dull but sweet daughter and her brilliant, unemotional father.
The plot of the novel is based upon a true story told to James by his close friend, British actress Fanny Kemble. The Holy Bible: King James Version.
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