Its opponents argue that normalization is a process that Arabs can have with countries that have not attacked and occupied Arab lands.
Introduction The proliferation of new communication technologies such as Web 2. It is hard to think of any aspect of "Westernized" social life that has not been touched by this change. The result of the increasingly common use of such technologies in education is that a significant proportion of formal higher education now only gets done in virtual spaces 1.
As GUMPERZ pointed out some time ago and before many of the technological moves that have expanded the frequency and prevalence of intercultural exchanges so dramaticallyintercultural exchanges of this type are a normal aspect of modern daily life.
GUMPERZ uses the term "speech communities" to describe socio-linguistic groupings such as countries, tribes, religious groupsp. As DURANTI has argued, even comparatively simple exchanges such as greeting are organized according to complex socio-historic cultural knowledge and are dependent for their interactional accomplishment on participants "sharing" that knowledge.
Where this knowledge is not shared, one might expect breaches to these taken for granted linguistic forms, Cultural differences in discourse all kinds of interactional consequences. To inform this discussion, I will draw on my teaching and research experiences of using and analyzing asynchronous discourse in postgraduate education environments.
The two key issues that I will be discussing are, firstly, the relevance of CA for discussing written modes of discourse, and, secondly, the ways that CA may contribute to our understanding of intercultural encounters.
As a precursor to these aims I will very briefly outline some of the key features of CA and look at some of the existing literature that has used this perspective to examine intercultural communication. CA shares with its "sister discipline" ethnomethodology EMan interest in the ways in which societal members display and make "accountable" their actions qua culture-in-action.
CA is particularly concerned with the ways that conversational machinery is used to this end. So, instead of explaining action according to abstract cultural rules that operate as a normative framework for action, social action is investigated such that those rules can be made visible as features of social praxis.
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Empirical Studies of Interculturality and Conversation A number of studies have used CA's concern with the examination of the operations of common sense understanding within conversational practice to look at the intersections of different cultures in a common language. In contrast, Finnish speakers treated such "introductory issues" as more lengthy topical sequence in their own right, requiring quite detailed exploration.
It is easy to imagine comedy sketches playing on this subtle difference, and the difficulties it may create for the hapless participants. This is not by any means intended to trivialize the matter: Indeed, YOUNG has looked at the ways in which Chinese communication strategies and their "translation" into English as a second or other language have impacted on the perceptions of the Chinese by U.
YOUNG shows that these simple cultural "ways of doing" create very tangible problems for communication that result in very real cross-cultural misunderstanding. MORI examined the achievement of intercultural discourse and the ways in which it is worked through in the moment-by-moment shifts of discourse.
MORI explored co-presence question-answer sequences between first and second language Japanese speakers in multi-party conversations and analyzed the ways that cultural differences were organizationally dealt with. MORI showed that the strategies used by first language speakers when asking questions served to categorize the intended answerers the second language speakers as linguistic novices.
More generally, MORI's work illustrates that cultural differences as represented in linguistic ability are visible aspects of talk, that are used by participant's to structure their conversations in orientation to their understandings of the "others" they are orientating to.
Park shows that NS and NNS are related to identities categories of "expert" and "novice" that are treated as emergent, sequentially realized and negotiated feature of the talk. The aim of the analysis was to see the types of categories that were relevant to the participants, and how they put them to use.
The authors showed the nuanced ways in which different categories were used as tools for reasoning. For example, the authors illustrate how the association of students with particular nationalities was used as a means of giving explanations for perceived differences between students, e.
In this way the problematic of cultures coming together in intercultural exchanges gains definition as the investigation of contexts for conversational praxis reveal distinctive issues that are a property of distinctive "speech communities" FISH, working through discourse together.
Conversation Analysis and Online Discourse Conversation analysis is directed towards the examination of talk as a constitutive site of culture: While there are some examples of work within ethnomethodology that have concentrated on the processes of making sense of texts e.
TEN HAVE suggested that the CA approach could be very useful for looking at online discourse, and the ways that postings are structured in order to produce particular kinds of readings.
The remainder of this paper explores the ways in which the concepts of sequentiality the turn-taking patterns of conversation and membership categorization analysis cultural categories and classificatory schemas may help to make sense of the organization of asynchronous written discourse in intercultural settings.
Turns are constructed by participants orientating to tacit knowledge about how turns operate: In his lectures, SACKS proposed a number of maxims that can be seen to operate as general procedures for talk.
Three of the most basic of these are: There are lots of other maxims that participants use to decide, inter alia, who's turn it is next, when it is their turn, when might be a good time to make a conversational turn, what kinds of topics those turns might reasonably deal with, how turns can be organized to bring about an opportunity to talk about something, and so on.
These basic maxims and conversational mechanisms are used to "read" contexts, conversational participants and their interactional "intentions. Those particular educational contexts are comprised of and constituted by those kinds of conversational mechanisms.
The very fact that participants regularly display preferences for and deference to these turn-taking procedures is, in part, what distinguishes those interactive environments from any other; in other words, these types of conversational practice constitute educational talk.Typical Examples of cultural differences The perception is different and often selective: Expressions are differentiated according their importance: for the Inuits (Eskimos) snow is part of their everyday life, therefore many words (e.
g. over 10 substantives) exist to describe it.
The results support cross-cultural differences in discourse functions that have implications for both translation and academic writing in cross-cultural contexts.
Keywords: academic discourse, corpus-based studies, rhetorical moves, contrastive analysis, Spanish/English. Western culture is deeply rooted in notions of patriarchal power and dominance, which have remained unchallenged for hundreds of years.
A major component of the patriarchal system is understanding the placement of the “other” within this discourse.
“Gender Identity and Discourse Analysis situates Gender Research in Cultural Studies and transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. It is a most fascinating and stimulating collection of papers which allows to critically reflect rigid and unproductive dichotomies of “male” and “female”, as well as “text” and “context".
5 Ideologies, Racism, Discourse: Debates on Immigration and Ethnic Issues TEUN A. VAN DIJK Aims This paper studies some of the ideological properties of political discourse on.
Discourse Markers 'Discourse markers' is the term linguists give to the little words like 'well', 'oh', 'but', and 'and' that break our speech up into parts and show the relation between parts. 'Oh' prepares the hearer for a surprising or just-remembered item, and 'but' indicates that sentence to follow is in opposition to the one before.