Definition, Theory, Development and Control Article shared by: The word bureaucracy is derived from the French word bureaucratic which is again derived from bureau. The dictionary meaning of bureaucracy is a system of government in which most decisions are taken by state officials rather than by elected representatives. This definition of bureaucracy is somewhat exaggerated because in most of the modern states the representatives take majority decisions and top government officials act as advisers to the representatives.
The Real Government Red tape. Vast, cookie-cutter buildings with fluorescent lighting and thousands of file cabinets. This building in Washington, D. These are the images that come to mind when many Americans think of government bureaucracy. A bureaucrat is someone who works in administrative capacity for the government.
How important are bureaucrats and their government agencies in actually running the United States government? According to some, they are the real government — the ones behind the scenes who go to work when the politicians are enjoying the spotlight.
Max Weber, a German sociologist was one of the first people in modern times to think seriously about the importance of bureaucracy. So bureaucracy literally means "government with a small desk.
The changing economic scene had important implications for government. Weber saw bureaucracy as a rational way for complex businesses and governments to organize. He did not see them as necessary evils, but as the best organizational response to a changing society.
According to Weber, model bureaucracies have the following characteristics: A chain of command that is hierarchical; the top bureaucrat has ultimate control, and authority flows from the top down A clear division of labor in which every individual has a specialized job Clearly written, well-established formal rules that all people in the organization follow A clearly defined set of goals that all people in the organization strive toward Merit-based hiring and promotion; no granting of jobs to friends or family unless they are the best qualified Job performance that is judged by productivity, or how much work an individual gets done Weber emphasized the importance of the bureaucracy in getting things done and believed that a well-organized, rational bureaucracy is the secret behind the successful operation of modern societies.
The Iron Triangle Observers of the modern American government often point to an iron triangle that best demonstrates who really does the work of government. The iron triangle, sometimes called a subgovernment, consists of interest groups, members of congressional subcommittees, and agency bureaucrats.
Who really governs the United States? Many political analysts believe policy is set by the participants in the "Iron Triangle" rather than elected officials. According to the theory, agencies and departments usually keep close contacts with interest group lobbyists who want to influence their actions.
Interest groups may provide valuable statistics to government agencies, and they are motivated to have their point of view heard. Both lobbyists and bureaucrats value contact with congressional subcommittees that shape the laws that govern their interests.
Working together, these three groups set most government policies. So, it is not only the famous people — the President, the Chief of Staff, the Speaker of the House, or the Senate Majority Leader — who make the real decisions in government.
Often, the real players in government are the agency bureaucrats — the people behind the scenes.Marx comments on the state bureaucracy in his Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right and Engels discusses the origins of the state in Origins of the Family, torosgazete.com; Ernest Mandel, Power and Money: A Marxist Theory of Bureaucracy.
London: Verso, On Weber: Watson, Tony J.
(). Sociology, Work and Industry. Routledge. ISBN In the United States, the bureaucracy began as a very small collection of individuals.
Over time, however, it grew to be a major force in political affairs. Indeed, it grew so large that politicians in modern times have ridiculed it to great political advantage.
Exploration of the Modern Bureaucratic State in the U.S. Date: January 5, Author: sjcarrier 0 Comments This essay is an exploration of the modern bureaucratic state in the United States of America; in large this essay is polemical.
The state, bureaucracy, and revolution in modern Iran: agrarian reforms and regime politics I Ali Farazmand. p. and the bureaucratic state was the dominant force in Iranian community as a British political creation of the late nineteenth.
The creation of the modern bureaucratic state in France occurred under the reign of Louis XIV who ruled as an absolute monarch. His reign was considered the "perfect embodiment of an absolute monarch".
The rise of the administrative state that is such an integral feature of modern liberalism thus required the defeat of the separation of powers .