An overview of the confusion among the small market teams in baseball season of 1994

Origins[ edit ] Columbia was founded by James W. Rousea native of Easton, Maryland. InRouse obtained a job in Baltimore with the Federal Housing Administrationa New Deal agency whose purpose was to promote home ownership and home construction. This position exposed Rouse to all phases of the housing industry.

An overview of the confusion among the small market teams in baseball season of 1994

Special Sections To cite this article Ressler, W. Team cohesion as a goal of socially responsible strategic communication. Case Studies in Strategic Communication, 1, article 4.

An overview of the confusion among the small market teams in baseball season of 1994

Team Cohesion as a Goal of Socially Responsible Strategic Communication Ithaca College Abstract Members of a sports team are often called on to participate in strategic communication activities that are intended to demonstrate social responsibility while enhancing the reputations of their team and their sport.

Surprisingly, however, evaluations of outcomes focus almost exclusively on benefits to stakeholders other than the team members. Evaluation results suggested that their activities increased their feelings of cohesion with teammates and connection to their college.

Interviews with team members suggested that they felt they received the greatest benefit when they had control over the process, opportunities to collaborate within and outside the team, and a personal and local connection to the cause.

One set of intentional strategic communication goals—strengthening the motivation, commitment, organizational identification, and ultimately performance of internal stakeholders e. The coach explained that her primary goal was to inculcate feelings of cohesion among her team members.

Involving her team members in socially responsible strategic communication activities would be the means to these internally driven ends. In past years, the coach had employed various strategies for enhancing social cohesion among team members, including team dinners, movies, and indoor rock climbing.

Strengthening social cohesion, she believed, improves athletic performance: College athletes seem to enjoy psychosocial benefit from participating in socially responsible communication activities Benson, Taken together, the results of studies like these reinforce the cardinality of building group cohesion as a strategic communication goal.

Even in the broader organizational context, researchers have pointed out the need for more research to measure specific benefits to internal stakeholders of externally focused philanthropic activities, benefits that include increased employee motivation, organizational identification, and social cohesion; researchers have even suggested that studies should include a before-and-after design with a control group of comparable stakeholders who did not participate in philanthropic activities Bhattacharya et al.

The current case study adopts this evaluation design in addressing this understudied strategic communication-group cohesion link. In the process, two additional, related goals of the strategic communication activities are considered: For college athletes, two dominant social identities stand out—being a member of a specific team and being an athlete at a specific college—and the above two goals correspond to each identity.

Feelings of cohesion are related to the social identities of the group members, and therefore having a more valued group identity can be associated with feelings of group cohesion. The coach had indicated that this particular sport was not one of the showcase college sports and that it seemed, moreover, to be even less popular on campus than in past years.

This would make belonging to the team more valued and would thus complement increases in team cohesion. Strategic communication often aims to improve morale and organizational commitment among internal stakeholders by means of its perceived impact on external audiences. It thus served both a marketing communication function and an organizational communication function.

An overview of the confusion among the small market teams in baseball season of 1994

When those communication activities include philanthropy or volunteering in the community, members of the organization can come to believe that doing good makes their organization and by extension, themselves more positively valued in the eyes of external audiences, and thus those individuals can feel better about themselves because of the elevated status of their group.

This, then, is an additional and complementary strategic communication goal: Some critics have asserted that competition undermines feelings of cohesion among different stakeholder groups, athletes and non-athletes, throughout the college. Disunity among various members of the broader campus community could be reflected in diminished feelings of attachment to the institution or strained relations between student athletes and non-athletes.

The philanthropic actions of a team within a larger organization can help to create an organizational culture of giving; in this case, that would suggest a link between philanthropic, community related activities of student athletes and identification with the college.

The questionnaire also included measures of 1 feeling influential—and thus valued—within the campus community and 2 identification with the institution. In addition, the coach and team members invited the author, a strategic communication professor, to participate in team meetings, to offer advice, and to observe the process as the players planned and carried out their strategic communication activities.

Strategy In Septemberthe coach presented the idea of a campaign and fundraiser to the players. Originally the coach had thought to work with a national organization that organizes breast cancer fundraisers for high school and college teams; the teams then send all money collected back to the organization.

After considering her reasons for holding the fundraiser, however, the coach began to consider that a more suitable strategy might be to let the players decide on the goals and processes of the promotion.

This intuition has support in the internal marketing literature. Taking responsibility for planning allows organization members to choose a beneficiary that would be a better fit to them, individually and collectively.

Execution The team members indeed rejected the idea of letting a national organization run their fundraiser and chose to decide themselves how to raise money and for whom, as well as how to promote the event and deliver breast cancer messages.

They collectively decided on a beneficiary, a local cancer resource center that aids people dealing with breast cancer.

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Planning the communication activities became an opportunity to build team cohesion. Players used downtime during team bus travel to write down ideas for the campaign and to exchange ideas for promotional poster designs.

They pooled their ideas to identify possible donors from the local business community, and businesses on the list were divided equally among small groups of players. Together, players considered different ways to raise money. Players reserved tables in the student union the week before the tournament, and they organized a staffing rotation to publicize the tournament, to solicit student donations and pass out pink bracelets, and to distribute brochures about breast cancer risks, prevention, and detection.

They advertised the tournament through posters, which players designed and then posted on campus and in the downtown commercial district see Appendix A. Players took advantage of public relations opportunities by writing articles that appeared in print and online campus media see Appendix B.

Consistent with the broader, college-wide goal of creating social cohesion outside the team, members of the team worked with other student groups on campus to carry out the strategic communication activities.Recent literature pertaining to small-scale societies has revealed a wide range of sociopolitical dynamics in the middle ground between centralized societies (chiefdoms and states) and small-scale, so-called egalitarian societies.

Early December Usery asks the owners for more time to broker an agreement and is given until December 15, which the owners later extend to December December 10, The union offers up a revised counterproposal: a tax at a flat rate of % on payrolls in with the raised funds to be distributed among small market clubs.

The Survival of Small-Market Teams in Major League Baseball Kevin E. Martens owners and the interests of society from conflicts among the interests of individual baseball owners ..

B. The survival of small-market teams under the free-market model of franchise relocation .. C. Altering the free-market model: justifications . Definitions of –95 Major League Baseball strike, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of –95 Major League Baseball strike, analogical dictionary of –95 Major League Baseball strike (English).

And the small-market teams think they have an advantage with younger rosters filled with more driven players. ”One of the dilemmas of our game is the money often robs the incentive of the player, and that happens sometimes, not only internationally but in the States, as well,” Royals general manager Dayton Moore said.

Income, after Ellis (), is the total market value of all production from farming, foraging, livestock, and the market, including production both for sale and for home consumption. Two other measures of income are also included in the analyses.

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