The Hellenistic Period c. During his reign the Macedonian state grew considerably in power.
A similar point can be made regarding Greek literature as a whole. Over a period of more than ten centuries, the ancient Greeks created a literature of such brilliance that it has rarely been equaled and never surpassed. In poetry, tragedy, comedy, and history, Greek writers created masterpieces that have inspired, influenced, and challenged readers to the present day.
To suggest that all Western literature is no more than a footnote to the writings of classical Greece is an exaggeration, but it is nevertheless true that the Greek world of thought was so far-ranging that there is scarcely an idea discussed today that was not debated by the ancient writers.
The only body of literature of comparable influence is the Bible. The language in which the ancient authors wrote was Greek. Like English, Greek is an Indo-European language; but it is far older.
Its history can be followed from the 14th century BC to the present. Its literature, therefore, covers a longer period of time than that of any other Indo-European language Scholars have determined that the Greek alphabet was derived from the Phoenician alphabet.
During the period from the 8th to the 5th century BC, local differences caused the forms of letters to vary from one city-state to another within Greece. From the 4th century BC on, however, the alphabet became uniform throughout the Greek world.
Of these the most significant works were produced during the preclassical and classical eras. Epic Tradition At the beginning of Greek literature stand the two monumental works of Homer, the 'Iliad' and the 'Odyssey'. The figure of Homer is shrouded in mystery.
Although the works as they now stand are credited to him, it is certain that their roots reach far back before his time. The 'Iliad' is the famous story about the Trojan War.
It centers on the person of Achilles, who embodied the Greek heroic ideal. While the 'Iliad' is pure tragedy, the 'Odyssey' is a mixture of tragedy and comedy. It is the story of Odysseus, one of the warriors at Troy. After ten years fighting the war, he spends another ten years sailing back home to his wife and family.
During his ten-year voyage, he loses all of his comrades and ships and makes his way home to Ithaca disguised as a beggar.
Both of these works were based on ancient legends. The stories are told in language that is simple, direct, and eloquent.
|Hellenistic Astrology | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||Babylonian Astrology in the Hellenized World Astrology, loosely defined as a method of correspondences between celestial events and activity in the human realm, has played a role in nearly every civilization. Its role in the late-Hellenistic era is of special concern, particularly due to its complex interaction with Greek philosophy, as well as its claims on the life of an individual.|
|Alexander’s successors||The Age of Modern Art Lesser known modern art movements of the mid-late 19th century included: Macchiaioli a Florentine style of anti-academy Impressionism ; Japonismpopular in UK and France ; French Naturalism Bande Noire, Brittany inspired by Emil Zola ss ; Naive Art, exemplified by Henri Rousseau ; Symbolisman intellectual form of expressionist painting ; Les Nabisa mystical religious school of decorative art which spanned painting, tapestry, mosaics, fans, ceramics, and book illustration s ; Verismo, an Italian school of raw realism, led by Telemaco Signorini.|
Both are as fascinatingly readable today as they were in ancient Greece. The other great poet of the preclassical period was Hesiod. He is more definitely recorded in history than is Homer, though very little is known about him.
He was a native of Boeotia in central Greece, and he lived and worked in about BC. His two works were 'Works and Days' and 'Theogony'.
The first is a faithful depiction of the dull and poverty-stricken country life he knew so well, and it sets forth principles and rules for farmers. It vividly describes the ages of mankind, beginning with a long-past golden age.
Together the works of Homer and Hesiod made a kind of bible for the Greeks. Homer told the story of a heroic past, and Hesiod dealt with the practical realities of daily life.The Hellenistic period begins in with the death of Alexander the Great and ends with the battle of Actio in 31 BC.
While Philip of Macedon conquered and united the Greek city-states, his son Alexander the Great embraced on a campaign that found him the conqueror of a vast empire which included Greece, Persia, the Near East, and Egypt. The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The Ancient Greek word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) is the original word for Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived. Hellenistic Art: History, Facts, and Characteristics The Hellenistic Period witnessed the glory and power of the Greek Empire reaching its zenith. This era was marked by a great deal of progress, particularly in the field of art.
Greece was a key province of the Roman Empire, and the Roman’s interest in Greek culture helped to circulate Greek art around the empire, especially in Italy, during the Hellenistic period and into the Imperial period of Roman hegemony. A history of Ancient Greece (Greeks) from the Dorians to Alexander including their cities, Philosophy, Government, Contributions, rise and decline.
Classical Greek Pottery. During this era, Ceramic art and thus vase-painting experienced a progressive decline. Exactly why, we don't know, but, judging by the lack of innovations and the increasing sentimentality of the designs, the genre appears to have worn itself out.